Public Works

Chapter 7 - Construction

This chapter of the manual functions as a guide for Construction Engineering employees. The instructions and guidelines contained in this chapter are mainly directed to Construction Project Managers and Inspectors.

The purpose of this chapter is to establish uniform policies and procedures regarding contract administration and inspection on CIP construction projects, provide interpretation and clarification of specifications for contract administration and inspection, and serve as a collecting point for new instructions and guidelines.

The content of this chapter has been developed from large and small project experiences. The basic duties and requirements in this manual will need to be tailored for each project. It is understood that modifications and changes from the processes laid out in this chapter may be necessary and desirable to meet the project’s needs.

For Contracts let through the DOT, refer to the Iowa Department of Transportation for contract administration and inspection guidelines. Those guidelines can be found in the Instructional Memorandums for Local Public Agencies.

Document Management and Storage
The City has developed a standard file structure for all project folders on the network. The intent for standardizing these items is so that anyone within Public Works or Utilities can easily access and use project files days, months, or years later.

Refer to document: SOP – STANDARD FILE STRUCTURE - CONSTRUCTION

Construction Contracts
Once City Council approves the resolution to award and approves the contract of the low bidder, the construction contract can be collected and executed. The construction contract is the legally binding agreement between the City and the Contractor to perform construction on the project per the plans and specifications. The contract addresses items such as the scope of work, payments, schedule, and quality.

Notice of Award
The first step is to prepare the Notice of Award (NOA) and send it to the Contractor. The NOA is prepared by the Construction Contract Coordinator. Timing of the NOA may vary but in general, is issued once a contract is scheduled to be awarded at a Council meeting.

Refer to document: SOP - NOTICE OF AWARD

Contract Documents
When the NOA is issued to the contractor, the Contract and various supporting documents are included.

The Contractor must execute the Contract and return it to the City along with all necessary forms within 10 days of the NOA. The Construction Contract Coordinator typically receives the contract documents from the Contractor, verifies all necessary information is included and arranges to obtain all necessary signatures.

Refer to document: SOP – CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

The time required to execute a Contract will vary based on the completeness of documents received from the Contractor (typically 1-2 weeks once received by the Construction Contract Coordinator).

Sales Tax Exemption Certificates
Any contract awarded after January 1, 2003, is required to be bid without sales tax. For each project, each contractor and subcontractor will be issued a sales tax exemption certificate.

Refer to document: SOP – SALES TAX EXEMPTION CERTIFICATES

Notice to Proceed
Once all of the contract documents are executed, the City Clerk will send one (1) fully executed Contract and one (1) original of each the Performance and Payment bond to the Construction Contract Coordinator. The Notice to Proceed can then be issued.

Refer to document: SOP - NOTICE TO PROCEED

Notice to Finance
After the Notice to Proceed has been issued, email the following information to ownergenerated@cedar-rapids.org (Finance):

Pre-Construction

Post-Bid Changes
It is preferred that post-bid changes be known at the time of the internal pre-construction meeting. Post-bid changes should be discussed between all parties at the meeting and it should be agreed upon how to incorporate them into the project. If drawing revisions are required, the Consultant should prepare these, then forward them to the Engineering Project Manager for distribution to the construction staff.

Internal Pre-Construction Meeting
Once a Notice to Award is issued, an internal pre-construction meeting may be held. These are typically held for larger, more complex construction projects. The timing for the meeting will vary with each project and it will be up to the Engineering Project Manager (PM) to determine if and when the meeting should occur. Attendees for the meeting should be the Engineering Project Manager, Consultant, Construction Inspector, Construction Project Manager, Construction Contract Coordinator, and Real Estate representative.

The purpose of the internal pre-construction meeting is for the PM, Consultant, and Real Estate staff to inform the construction staff of project-specific details that may arise during the construction phase. Typical discussion topics include:

  1. Post-bid changes
  2. Addenda
  3. Project-specific deadlines (including funding deadlines)
  4. Access requirements
  5. Challenges during acquisitions
  6. Public relations issues
  7. Non-standard bid items
  8. Construction milestones

Permits
Various permits will be required for construction and applicable permits may vary for each project. The following is a list of permits that may apply:

  1. City of Cedar Rapids Excavation Permit – required for each project with any portion in City Right-of-Way
  2. Iowa DNR NPDES Construction Permit – required for sites disturbing 1 acre or more; Contractor and all subs must sign a Contractor and Subcontractor Certification Statement
    Refer to document: SOP - PRECONSTRUCTION MEETING
  3. Iowa DNR Water Main Construction Permit – required for projects involving water construction
  4. Iowa DNR Sanitary Sewer Construction Permit – required for projects involving sanitary sewer construction
  5. Railroad Permits – Typically require “Right of Entry” permits from Contractor if working adjacent to railway (requirements may vary depending on railway owner)
  6. Linn County – ROW permit required if work is within Linn County ROW
  7. Iowa DOT – Work within ROW permit required when work is within DOT ROW
  8. Section 404 (Clean Water Act) – Joint permit application is submitted to DNR Sovereign Lands, DNR Floodplain, and US Army Corps of Engineers

Except for the Excavation Permit, permits typically are acquired by the Designer before the start of construction. See the Design chapter for additional information regarding permits.

Pre-Construction Meeting
Pre-Construction meetings are required to be held before work can begin on a project. The purpose of the meeting is for the Contractor to discuss scheduling, phasing, anticipated conflicts during construction, and answer any questions related to the project. Representatives from public and private utilities in the project limits are invited to review the status of their relocations and discuss considerations for maintaining service to properties during construction.

The meeting is facilitated by the Construction Project Manager assigned to the project with input from the Engineering Project Manager, Consultant, and Construction Inspector as needed.

Refer to document: SOP - PRECONSTRUCTION MEETING

CONTRACT TIME
Contract time is the maximum time allowed in the contract for completion of all work contained in the contract documents. Contracts are typically one of three types:

  1. Completion Date
  2. Calendar Day
  3. Working Day

Refer to the SUDAS Standard Specifications and the Cedar Rapids Supplemental Specifications to SUDAS for additional information regarding each type of contract and charging of contract time.

Refer to document: SUDAS STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, DIVISION 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS AND COVENANTS, SECTION 1080 – PROSECUTION AND PROGRESS, 1.02 – CONTRACT TIME

Refer to document: CEDAR RAPIDS SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS TO SUDAS

CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE
The Contractor is responsible for preparing the construction schedule and a schedule must be submitted to the Construction Contract Coordinator before the pre-construction meeting. The schedule must be reviewed by the Construction Project Manager. The Engineering Project Manager may also review the schedule if determined necessary by the Construction Project Manager. The schedule is discussed at the pre-construction meeting and any issues must be brought up at that time. Starting, completion and milestone dates are part of the contract and must be taken into account. If these are not addressed, the Contractor must revise and resubmit the schedule.

Special events within a project’s limits and time frame should be discussed at the pre-construction meeting and their impact on the schedule considered.

SUBMITTALS
Materials submittals are required for all construction materials permanently incorporated into a project. Once received from the Contractor, the submittals are routed for review for conformance with the contract documents.

Refer to document: SOP - MATERIAL SUBMITTALS

PROJECT BOOK AND APPIA
Following the Notice of Award, the Construction Project Manager shall set up the project quantity book and set up the project in Appia for use by inspection staff.

Refer to document: SOP – QUANTITY BOOK

Refer to document: APPIA – PROJECT CREATION & ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTION MANUAL

Communication
Construction Engineering staff represent the City and shall always professionally conduct themselves.

With the Public
Inspectors and Construction Project Managers are among the most important individuals in the development of good public relations during the construction of the project. Creating a positive relationship with residents within and near the limits of the project reflects well on the City. All parties involved in the construction phase have a large interest in promoting goodwill. See the Public Relations section of this chapter for additional information.

With the Contractor
Under the contract system used in construction, Contractors aim to perform the work contracted and Inspectors and Construction Project Managers see that the work performed is according to the project plans and specifications. Since these aims are essentially the same, City-Contractor relations should be conducted in a spirit of cooperation within the framework of the specifications and with the best interest of both contracting parties. Establishing a cooperative and collaborative working relationship with Contractors may result in improved quality and fewer unresolved contract issues.

Contractors should do no less than required, nor should they expect compensation for work done that was not required. Good Contractor relations can be promoted by keeping an open line of communication and advising Contractors of unacceptable work before such work is completed. In general, relations with the Contractor should be fair, firm, courteous, and based on sound judgment under the guidance of specification requirements.

Contracts should be administered and communication made only through the Prime Contractor’s superintendent or other authorized Contractor representatives on-site. If there is an issue with the performance or work quality of a sub-contractor, the communication shall be with the Prime Contractor. The subcontractor can be informed but the formal communication shall go to the Prime Contractor.

With the Consultant
The City of Cedar Rapids Engineering division often contracts with Consultants for the preparation of construction project plans. Inspectors must use good judgment to not burden the Consultant with questions of minor significance by reviewing the plans and project manual for possible answers before raising any questions regarding the design. However, asking too many questions is far better than the single failure to ask important questions. When clarification is required, the Inspector shall use the line of communication for city staff outlined below. The consultant will be brought into an issue if no resolution can be made by City Staff.

Line of Communication for City Staff

  1. The first point of contact is Construction Inspector
  2. The second point of contact is the Construction Project Manager
  3. The third point of contact is the Project Manager

Line of Communication for Contractor

 

  1. The first point of contact is Construction Inspector
  2. The second point of contact is the Construction Project Manager
    1. Requests for information shall first be sent to Construction PM who may forward to the Project Manager or Consultant as appropriate
    2. The contractor should not contact the Consultant

Project Management
Responsibility for administering construction contracts on City infrastructure rests with the City Engineer. Responsibility for actual construction work is delegated to the Public Works Construction Manager and ultimately rests with the Construction Project Manager (CPM). The CPM has the authority to administer construction contracts according to the contract documents and the Construction Inspector Supervisor assigns and supervises inspection personnel on construction projects. CPM decisions are subject to review and perhaps revision by the Public Works Construction Manager and City Engineer.

Responsibility
The CPM, who is assigned responsibility for supervision of the construction of Public Works projects, is the key person in the field organization. In assuming the responsibility for the proper fulfillment of assigned construction work, the CPM is also responsible for:

  • Maintaining good relations with contractors, affected property owners, and the general public
  • Keeping the Project Manager and Public Works Construction Manager informed as to construction progress, status, etc.
  • Maintaining complete project records and proper documentation
  • Assuring proper use of equipment and materials used in the performance of assigned duties.

While CPMs have responsibility for general supervision of the work, their main concerns are compliance with specifications and project completion. It is not their responsibility to direct the everyday activities of the Contractor.

The CPM cannot and should not expect to retain all the duties and responsibilities. To have an efficient organization, each employee should be delegated authority in line with their responsibilities. The CPM must check to see that delegated duties are properly performed.

All employees should be encouraged to accept delegated responsibility and to make decisions within the authority delegated to them.

Project Documentation
It is the responsibility of the CPM to ensure all aspects of construction are accurately and effectively documented. Accurate project documentation is helpful in many different ways. It helps provide insight as to what happened on the project. It provides information to future users as to what changes were made and why. Most importantly, effective documentation can help prevent future disputes or legal battles.

USE OF CITY ROW
It is the Contractor's responsibility to confine its construction activities within the limits indicated on the plans, in the safest manner possible, and at the least inconvenience to the property owners.

Refer to document: SUDAS STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, DIVISION 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS AND COVENANTS, SECTION 1070 – LEGAL RELATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PUBLIC

Occasionally a Contractor requests permission to establish a material or equipment storage site on City right-of-way. In reviewing these requests, the CPM must consider the impact of vehicles entering and leaving these sites on public traffic. In situations where vehicles entering and leaving the site to create a negative safety impact on the public, the request shall be denied.

USE OF PRIVATE PROPERTY
When a Contractor obtains an agreement with a private entity to use the property in connection with a public improvement project, the Contractor shall provide a copy of the agreement to the City.

A Contractor who wishes to use excess property owned by the City in connection with a public improvement project must receive permission from the City, via Change Order. The Contractor shall submit the request for use of City property in writing to the CPM. The CPM shall create a Work Change Directive that amends the contract to allow the Contractor to use the City-owned property. The Work Change Directive shall state the physical address and GPN of the property that the Contractor shall use and shall also include language that requires the property to be reestablished to the same or better condition than it was in before usage.

Refer to document – SOP – CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS

CONTRACT QUANTITY AGREEMENT
Oftentimes, it may be advantageous to agree to pay for work based upon the contract’s estimated quantity. The City or the Contractor may request that the final payment for an item is based on contract quantities.

Refer to document: SOP – CONTRACT QUANTITY AGREEMENT

WEEKLY REPORT OF WORKING DAYS
On contracts with working day time limits, the CPM is required to send a Weekly Report of Working Days to the Contractor. The Weekly Report of Working Days is a report generated that documents time charged versus actual work completed. It provides a summary of the previous week’s activities on site, the working days that were charged for the week, and the percentage of the project complete. It is the responsibility of the CPM to generate a report and send the report to the Contractor weekly.

Refer to document: SOP – WORKING DAY REPORT

TRAFFIC CONTROL
Any time that a traffic change occurs on the job site, the Contractor is required to notify the CPM. The Contractor must provide details of what traffic control will be placed and where, and the expected duration of traffic control. This shall be sent through writing to the CPM at least two business days before the traffic control change. The CPM is responsible for notifying the Traffic Engineering Division of these changes.

Refer to document: SOP – PUBLIC RELATIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION

PLAN DEVIATIONS
Consultants and Project Managers work hard to develop quality design plans to result in minimal issues encountered in the field; however, construction projects are complicated, complex undertakings and issues arise due to a variety of reasons. Examples include differing site conditions not envisioned in the original contract price, constructability issues, and modifications due to actions or inactions of third-parties (ex. Utilities). Issues may be due to design errors and/or omissions. All significant deviations from the original plans should be documented.

Refer to document: SOP – DOCUMENTING PLAN DEVIATIONS

DESIGN UPDATES
Throughout a project, issues may arise that result in a change to the plans. When revised plan sheets are required, the CPM shall be responsible for ensuring the revised sheets are distributed to all of the necessary parties and that a complete, updated plan set is maintained.

Refer to document: SOP – DESIGN UPDATES

ADA RAMP DOCUMENTATION
ADA Ramps are an integral piece of the roadway and intersection designs. Strict guidelines are in place and must be met for an ADA Ramp to be accepted into the project. The CPM is responsible for compiling the completed or corrected ramps monthly on their projects and sending the information to the Civil Engineer I – ADA Specialist. These are then checked for compliance, compiled into reports, and filed for records of compliance.

Progress Meetings
On most construction projects, progress meetings will be held starting from the beginning of construction work until the completion of all work. The purpose of progress meetings is to review progress in the work during the previous week(s), discuss anticipated progress during the following week(s), and review critical operations and potential problems.

Refer to document: SOP – PROGRESS MEETINGS

Contract Modifications
A contract modification is a document that is recommended by the CPM and signed by the Contractor and either the City Manager or City Council, which authorizes an addition, deletion, or revision in the work or an adjustment in the contract price or the contract times. Once signed by all parties, these change orders become legally binding contract documents.

Contract modifications are used to:

  • Change the authorized quantity of a contract item. This includes increases or decreases to contract quantities.
  • Add a new item or material to an existing contract. Often this is a result of plan revisions or a change in scope from what was originally envisioned at the time of letting.
  • Change the contract time.
  • Serve as a source document for Finance to enter changes and additions into the Contractor Pay System.
  • Officially document changes to the contract documents.

It is imperative that the CPM actively pursue contract modification negotiations to an early conclusion. Substantial changes to the contract scope or time shall receive oversight and concurrence from the Project Manager before developing any contract modifications. No work shall begin until the Contractor has agreed to a contract modification. Any work completed without prior approval by the CPM in writing, will not be paid.

CHANGE IN SCOPE OF WORK
If items arise for which payment is not addressed in the original plans, changes to the scope will be addressed per SUDAS. As soon as an issue arises that may result in a change to the scope of work and/or a change in the contract time, the Contractor shall notify the Inspector and CPM in writing of the claim.

Refer to document: SUDAS STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, DIVISION 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS AND COVENANTS, SECTION 1040 – SCOPE OF WORK, 1.09 CHANGED SITE CONDITIONS

Refer to document: SUDAS STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, DIVISION 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS AND COVENANTS, SECTION 1040 – SCOPE OF WORK

CHANGE IN CONTRACT TIME
For reasons of public interest, it is essential that the work progresses, with the least possible delay, so that all work is completed within the time period allowed. If items arise that may result in the Contractor being unable to complete the work within the original contract period, they may request an extension of time per SUDAS. The Inspector and CPM shall closely monitor the work progress and discuss time extensions as items arise, not after construction.

Refer to document: SUDAS STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, DIVISION 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS AND COVENANTS, SECTION 1080 – PROSECUTION AND PROGRESS, 1.09 – EXTENSION OF TIME

WORK CHANGE DIRECTIVES AND CHANGE ORDERS
The City of Cedar Rapids uses two different forms to prepare contract modifications. The first is a Work Change Directive, which is prepared by the CPM and is an unofficial agreement to the change. With each periodic payment, an official Change Order is prepared by the Finance Department that encapsulates all Work Change Directives from the previous month and is the official document that modifies the contract.

Refer to document: SOP – CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS

Inspection
Inspection is one of the most important processes on any City Project. Even though much care is used in preparing contract documents, the quality of the finished product generally reflects the quality of the inspection performed.

An Inspector must be honest and fair, exercising responsibilities with firmness and good nature. Inspectors must work cooperatively with fellow employees, supervisors, and contractors. The Inspector must avoid supervising the Contractor's work operations or performing any other activity that could be construed as a responsibility of the Contractor; otherwise, the contracting authority's position could be jeopardized in the event of a dispute or claim.

Responsibility
The first and primary responsibility is to ensure that the Contractor’s work and site activities are in conformance with the plans and specifications. Plans and specifications detail the work that is to be constructed – including the materials to be used, the workmanship required, and certain construction procedures to be followed. Inspectors must assure themselves that all materials furnished and work performed by the Contractor comply with contract requirements. The contractor's operations must be observed and appropriate tests and measurements must be performed to determine the progress and the quality of work. Documentation of inspected work and computations should be complete. Responsibilities include:

  • Be familiar with plans, details, specifications, and special provisions
  • Maintain daily records of inspection findings and construction progress
  • Maintain daily records of quantities
  • Ensure materials comply with contract requirements
  • Recognize unsafe conditions
  • Inspect traffic control
  • Monitor erosion control issues

Authority
The Inspector is responsible for determining that the work being done and the materials that are being used meet the requirements of the contract documents. The Inspector has the authority to reject materials or suspend work if the quality of either is in dispute with the Contractor. Any rejection of materials or suspension of work shall immediately be reported in an email to the Contractor and Construction Project Manager (CPM). The settlement of a dispute is decided by the CPM.

An Inspector's authority does not extend to modification of any of the provisions of the contract documents, acceptance of the work, acting as a supervisor for the Contractor, or improper interference in the Contractor's project management.

Inspectors do not have the authority to change the design without specific approval from the Engineer of Record.

Project Initiation
Before the commencement of construction, the Inspector must gather all necessary documentation for the project. This includes the project manual, plans, specifications, and any other supporting documentation. The Inspector should thoroughly review all documents to become acquainted with the project. Any errors or discrepancies found in the initial review shall be flagged and brought to the attention of the Construction Project Manager.

PLAN FAMILIARITY
An Inspector should become thoroughly familiar with project plans, specifications, special provisions, and details that apply to the work being inspected. The Inspector must be capable of recognizing if the work being inspected conforms to the contract requirements.

SUBMITTALS
The Contractor will be required to provide submittals for all materials that are incorporated into the project. They will be reviewed and accepted by the Construction Project Manager, or others. Once approved, the Construction Contract Coordinator will forward all submittals to the Inspector. It is important to review these documents to understand what materials will be allowed on the project.

SITE VISIT
A trip to the project site before construction is always necessary. A walk-through of the project site can help answer questions, provide insight on the plans, and give the Inspector familiarity with the job. While doing a preconstruction site visit, the Inspector shall also make photographic and/or video documentation of the existing conditions. It is always important to provide photographic evidence of the original conditions, this can clear confusion following the project.

Refer to document: SOP – PRECONSTRUCTION SITE SURVEY

PRECONSTRUCTION MEETING
After award of the contract and before starting work on the project, a meeting between the Contractor’s and City’s staff is conducted to discuss project requirements and administrative details. The items for discussion at the meeting and scheduling of the meeting will depend on the type and complexity of the project and the Contractor’s familiarity with Cedar Rapids’ procedures. The Inspector shall be present at this meeting.

Refer to document: SOP - PRECONSTRUCTION MEETING

Work in Progress Inspection
Good inspection practices include developing a working arrangement with the Contractor that allows for being at the right place at the right time for prompt and adequate inspection. Inspection and testing requirements can be found in the specifications used for the project development. This is often noted within the first few pages of the project plans.

Refer to document: LEVELS OF INSPECTION TABLE

Project Documentation
Project documentation is intended to serve two major purposes. The first purpose is to communicate with others on the project and the second is to provide a recorded history of the project. If a document is not sufficiently clear to serve the first purpose, it will never serve the second. All documents generated can become evidence in litigation. Documents should not be produced that would embarrass the City of Cedar Rapids or create unnecessary legal exposure. A legal challenge could come from an unsuspected source. As such, all documentation should be maintained with the same diligence. Caution should be exercised in writing marginal notes on correspondence as it could have an effect the original letter did not intend.

It is the responsibility of the Inspector to accurately and effectively document all aspects of construction. Accurate project documentation is helpful in many different ways. It helps provide insight to others that were not there as to what happened on the project. It provides information to future users as to what changes were made and why. Most importantly, effective documentation can help prevent future disputes or legal battles.

Documentation should occur as soon as possible, but no later than 1 week, following any activities so that the Inspector can accurately recall information. Effective documentation should be complete, inclusive, accurate, and factual. The Inspector is responsible for providing documentation by use of Field Books, Daily Diaries, Weekly Reports, Pay Applications, Non-Compliance Notices, and other worksheets.

All documentation shall reside in the respective Inspection folder for the project on the City server. All documentation must stay at this location so it can be easily accessed by others, and can be updated continuously. Storage of project documentation is not to occur in any other locations.

Requirements of good project documentation are:

  • Clear. Others should understand it.
  • Complete. Tell the whole story.
  • Timely. Document it before you have a chance to forget some or all of it.
  • Accurate. Relate the facts only. Do not speculate.
  • Objective. Present an unbiased document
  • Specific. Keep to the point, and avoid the unnecessary.
  • Uniform. Develop a habit of documenting with standardized forms. Do not use new forms or unique forms that have not been reviewed or accepted by the City.

DAILY REPORT
The daily report is used to document work progress, site conditions, labor and equipment usage, and the Contractor’s ability (or inability) to perform their work. By covering both normal work processes and unusual happenings, it paints a picture of the project on a day-by-day basis.

Refer to document: SOP – CONSTRUCTION INSPECTOR DAILY REPORT

WEEKLY REPORT OF WORKING DAYS
On contracts with Working Day time limits, the Inspector shall track the days based on rules for charging of working days. The Weekly Report of Working Days is a report generated that documents time charged versus actual work completed. It provides a summary of the previous week’s activities on site, the working days that were charged for the week, and the percentage of the project complete. The Inspector is expected to have all information necessary for the Weekly Report of Working Days entered by the end of the workweek.

Refer to document: SOP – WEEKLY WORKING DAY REPORT

STORMWATER SITE INSPECTIONS
On projects that have one acre or more of disturbed area, the City is required to obtain an Iowa NPDES General Permit No. 2 for Construction Activities. This permit allows the discharge of stormwater associated with construction activities. As part of General Permit No. 2, the site is required to be inspected at least once every seven calendar day for compliance.

Refer to document: SOP – STORMWATER SITE INSPECTIONS

UTILITY INCIDENT FORMS
Whenever a utility is hit, it is important to document the incident. Whether due to unmarked lines, or negligent work, proper documentation is critical for the City.

Refer to document: SOP – UTILITY INCIDENT FORMS

PHOTOGRAPHS
It is the responsibility of the Inspector on the construction site to obtain an adequate photographic record of work in progress on each contract. The Inspector should rely on judgment and experience to determine subject matter and quantity. The documentation obtained by timely photographs can be used to demonstrate previously existing conditions such as site access, storage space, completion status, and soundness of pre-existing facilities.

Refer to document: SOP – CONSTRUCTION PHOTOGRAPHS

NON-COMPLIANCE FORM
If the Inspector notices or has their attention called to work or other activities of the project that do not meet the specifications, or if the Contractor attempts to utilize a particular construction mean or method to install work that will result in work that will be unacceptable, the Inspector shall notify the Prime Contractor as quickly as possible. If immediate steps are not taken to resolve the concern, the Inspector shall issue a Non-Compliance Notice to the Prime Contractor.

Refer to document: SOP – NON-COMPLIANCE FORM

PLAN DEVIATIONS
Rarely is a project built exactly per the project plans. The Inspector may identify an issue during construction that requires changes in the plans. All significant deviations from the original plans should be documented.

Refer to document: SOP – DOCUMENTING PLAN DEVIATIONS

Quantity Measurements and Pay Applications
The Inspector is responsible for measuring work for payment. Pay quantities are required to be measured and documented for contract payment and tracking purposes. Part of Construction Engineering’s role is to pay the Contractor for work performed. Inspectors are best suited for paying for contract work since they are the closest to the work. Good documentation of pay quantities is needed to avoid underpaying, overpaying, or double-paying the Contractor for completed work.

QUANTITY BOOK
The Inspector’s quantity book contains a log of all work that has taken place. It accurately describes when and where each item was placed in the project. It also contains support sheets that detail material compliance. The quantity book will include information such as the project name, number, items, quantities, prices, and funding sources.

Once work begins, the field book needs to be updated daily. Precise and timely entries are essential to ensure monthly pay applications can be completed with ease.

Refer to document: SOP – QUANTITY BOOK

PAY APPLICATIONS
The City of Cedar Rapids pays the Contractor for all work completed monthly. The fourth Friday of each month is designated as a quantity cutoff date. All work through this date is to be itemized in the quantity book for proper payment to the Contractor. Keeping accurate documentation in the quantity book will make pay applications extremely easy.

Refer to document: SOP – PAY APPLICATIONS

Material Compliance and Testing
Materials used in the work must meet all quality requirements of the contract documents and, as such, are subject to inspection and testing before incorporation into the work.

Materials quality tests should be performed expeditiously and carefully. Test samples should be carefully handled and protected. Test failures should be promptly reported. The Inspector should notify the Contractor of failures or when materials are rejected before being incorporated into the work.

Unacceptable work should be recognized early and reported to the Contractor before it develops into expensive and time-consuming corrections. Notification should be confirmed in writing if necessary. For example, if the Contractor is using the wrong sizes or types of materials, the Contractor should be informed of this at the first opportunity.

MATERIAL VERIFICATION
Before the commencement of construction, the Contractor is required to submit material specifications for items that will be incorporated on-site. The material submittals will be reviewed by the Construction Project Manager and forwarded to the Inspector. The Inspector shall confirm that the materials being used on site conform to the materials submitted by the Contractor and the project specifications. In the absence of apparent defects, materials arriving on the job identified as approved by the Construction Project Manager may be accepted by the Inspector.

FIELD TESTING
The Inspector is responsible for the field sampling and testing portion of the project verification tests.

Refer to document: SOP – CONSTRUCTION FIELD TESTING

NON-COMPLIANCE NOTICE
If test results fall outside specification limits, the Inspector shall issue a Non-Compliance Notice to the Prime Contractor.

Refer to document: SOP – NON-COMPLIANCE FORM

CORRECTION OF FAILING MATERIALS
Test results that do not pass or meet minimum criteria shall be brought to the Contractor and Construction Project Manager’s attention. The Construction Project Manager shall determine if project work is acceptable and within reasonably close conformity with contract documents. If the work is not in reasonably close conformity, it is the Contractor’s responsibility to determine how the deficiency will be correct. City staff is not responsible to tell the Contractor what needs to be done to correct the problem.

The Construction Project Manager is permitted to allow the work to remain in place if it is reasonably acceptable and to provide an adjustment in the contract unit price for work that is deficient. However, the Contractor may elect to remove the deficient work with no extra payment and replace it with material that complies.

Whenever deviations from specification limits or tolerances occur, whether the deviation is to the extent that payment adjustments will be made or not, the Contractor shall take immediate corrective action that will ensure subsequent compliance. If immediate corrective action is not taken, the Inspector will stop the work.

When test results are within specifications but continuously near the limits or tolerances on any sieve, the Inspector will inform the Contractor that corrective action would be advisable and document this advice in the daily diary. Work will not be stopped, pending such corrective action, unless non-compliance has occurred.

Safety
The Inspector must be safety-minded but, the responsibility for job site safety lies solely with the Contractor. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations (federal and state) apply to all construction projects. (Federal OSHA regulations are codified in 29 CFR, Sections 1910 and 1926.) Contractors are responsible for compliance with OSHA regulations and shall maintain a safe work site. Therefore, contractors and their employees must be familiar with the health and safety requirements of the act.

The Contractor controls the construction site and is tasked with providing the finished project by their means and methods. It is the responsibility of the Contractor to follow all local, state, and federal regulations regarding workplace safety. How the Contractor achieves this is their concern.

It is the responsibility of the Inspector to ensure the finished product conforms to what is specified, to test materials, gather quantities, etc. The Inspector is not responsible to review the Contractor’s safety program or ensure the Contractor is following the correct safety procedures. The Inspector should recognize when there are unusual or unsafe conditions that are created by the Contractor. If the Inspector feels the current operations are creating an unsafe environment for the Contractor or the general public, the Inspector can inform the Contractor of the concern and should take photographs to document the situation. If it is an imminent hazard and the Contractor is not working to correct the situation, the Inspector shall immediately notify the Construction Project Manager.

Traffic Control
MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices on all public streets, highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public travel. The MUTCD is published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) under 23 Cod of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 655, Subpart F. The MUTCD shall be followed on all City projects, and temporary traffic control shall meet the requirements as defined.

INSPECTION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL
All traffic control on the project shall be inspected daily to confirm that it is in good condition and conformance with the traffic control plan. Traffic Control shall also be checked immediately following a major storm event. Any deficiencies in traffic control shall be brought to the attention of the Contractor as soon as possible. The Inspector shall follow up to make sure the traffic control is brought back to compliance, and if not, should shut work down until it meets compliance. Note traffic control condition in the daily report.

Public Relations
Before work is started, and as work progresses, City staff shall make an effort to advise residents and businesses of construction and discuss the probable effect on their operations. This allows the public to arrange their operations to fit the construction schedule.

Refer to document: SOP – PUBLIC RELATIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION

(Updated March 2021)

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